Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and by Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, PDF

By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos

ISBN-10: 1420055550

ISBN-13: 9781420055559

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There are a variety of methods that will indicate the composition of the body. Some of these are direct and useful in small rodents, whereas others are useful for ongoing studies of body composition change. 62–71 Normal bodies usually consist of 16–20% protein, 3–5% ash (mineral matter), 10–12% fat, and 60–70% water. Age, diet, genetic background, physical activity, hormonal status, and gender can affect not only the proximate composition of the whole body—that is, the magnitude of each of these components—but also their distribution.

Individuals with this syndrome are developmentally delayed, have poor muscle tone and are growth retarded. 10 Suggested causes of obesity Mutations in genes for Leptin, leptin receptor Cholesystokinin Adipsin, adiponectin Ghrelin Tumor necrosis factor (TNFa) Neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor Adipocyte-specific transcription factor C/EBPa Agouti protein Carboxypeptidase E Phosphodiesterase β-adrenergic receptor Growth hormone receptor Glucocorticoid receptor Insulin receptor UCPs Melanocortin 3 receptor Hormonal imbalance Excess glucorticoid Excess insulin Hypothyroidism Polycystic ovary disease Other causes Injury to the brain stem or hypothalamus Social/cultural feeding behaviors Inactivity linked to overeating other behavioral features develop.

To make one molecule of tripalmitin (palmitate is a 16 carbon fatty acid), 12 molecules of glucose and 45 molecules of ATP would be needed to make 3 molecules of palmitoyl CoA. Another half molecule of glucose and four ATPs would be needed to make the glycerol phosphate. 5 moles of glucose plus 49 moles of ATP would be necessary to make 1 mol of tripalmitin. 4 mole of glucose would have to be completely oxidized because one mole would give only 36 ATPs and 49 are needed. Tripalmitin synthesis from glucose is energetically more expensive because only four of the six glucose carbons are used to make the 16-carbon fatty acid, palmitate.

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Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism by Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos

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