By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole
A brand new variation of the UK's average advent to the risks awarded by way of ionizing radiation and the equipment of defense and control.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E
These are diagnostic radiology, therapeutic radiology, use of isotopes in medicine, radioactive waste, fall-out from nuclear weapon tests and occupational exposures to radiation. 1 Diagnostic radiology It has been estimated that over 90 per cent of the total exposure of the population from man-made sources of ionizing radiation comes from the diagnostic use of X-rays. The 43 44 Natural and man-made radiation most important regions of the body in this context are the bone marrow, the colon, the gonads and the fetus.
The estimated contribution to average dose in the UK is about 6 μSv/year, of which atomic energy workers contribute about 40 per cent with the remainder resulting mainly from medical exposures. 2 lists the average annual doses received by members of the public in the UK from the current sources of man-made radiation. 42 SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS Sources of background radiation: Cosmic radiation originating from the Sun and interstellar space. The atmosphere provides shielding. Radiation from uranium and thorium with their daughter products in the Earth’s crust.
The atmosphere acts as a shield and significantly reduces the amount of cosmic radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. This filtering action means that the dose rate at sea level is less than at high altitudes. 2 mSv/year, while the dose rate at an altitude of 3000 m is about 1 mSv/year. 33 mSv/year. One very important radionuclide arises mainly from the interaction of neutrons in cosmic radiation with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere to form carbon-14 as follows: 14 N (n, p)14C Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) Carbon-14, which has a half-life of 5568 years, diffuses to the lower atmosphere, where it may become incorporated in living matter.
An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E by Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole