By Tharwat F. Tadros
Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important function in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate common program in own care, cosmetics, prescribed drugs, agrochemicals and the foodstuff undefined. Their class, actual homes, part habit, their results and purposes are coated during this e-book.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Surfactants
When the ratio of cmcs is far from 1. This fact is used when preparing microemulsions where the addition of medium chain alcohol (like pentanol or hexanol) changes the properties considerably. e. e. at the cmc of the systems the micelles are up to 50 % composed of component 2. g. dodecyl alcohol in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Fig. 9 shows the cmc as a function of molar composition of the solution and in the micelles for a mixture of SDS and nonylphenol with 10 moles ethylene oxide (NP–E10 ). If the molar composition of the micelles is used as the x-axis, the cmc is more or less the arithmetic mean of the cmcs of the two surfactants.
As mentioned before, carbohydrate ester surfactants suffer from the disadvantage of chemical instability at neutral or alkaline pH (due to the instability of the ester bond). This instability problem can be overcome by using alkyl glycosides which are based on similar building blocks. Chemical synthesis is useful for the production of mixtures of alkyl glycosides as discussed before. When pure isomers are needed, enzymatic synthesis offers an attractive alternative. Two main classes of enzymes can be used for coupling the carbohydrate part to a hydrophobic alcohol, namely glycosyl transferases and glycosyl hydrolases.
4. Shapes of micelles. indicate that in many systems the micelles are not spherical. For example, Debye and Anacker  proposed a cylindrical micelle to explain the light scattering results on hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in water. Evidence for disc-shaped micelles have also been obtained under certain conditions. A schematic representation of the spherical, lamellar and rod-shaped micelles, suggested by McBain, Hartley and Debye is given in Fig. 4. Many ionic surfactants show dramatic temperature-dependent solubility as illustrated in Fig.
An Introduction to Surfactants by Tharwat F. Tadros